- No new country can become a nuclear power.
- Countries having nuclear weapons will not pass the information to other countries.
High political pressure from US and other countries was applied on India to sign the treaty since India was the most powerful nation who didn't sign the treaty. India agreed to sign it if and only if some new clauses are introduced into the treaty like the existing 5 nuclear powers will destroy their nuclear arms at a cutoff date. On 1996, a new treaty called CTBT ( Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) was introduced. But it was just another form of NPT and it didn't contain the clauses put forward by India. 9 countries including India haven't signed CTBT yet.
In 1998, US gave India an ultimatum to sign the treaty before September, 1998. India came under tremendous political pressure. But in May 1998, India conducted 5 nuclear explosions and declared themselves as a nuclear power. This was done to ensure that even if India was forced to sign the treaty, they are already a nuclear power. Hence India cannot be considered as new nuclear power and hence that clause won't be technically valid for India. But this action caused a lot of protest from the existing nuclear powers and India was isolated both economically and politically by the developed nations. India is still considered as n non-nuclear power by these countries.
The isolation for India was said to be lifted when India signed the nuclear agreement with U.S. India signed 123 agreement with both NSG and IAEA. They considered India as a special case and decided to give nuclear fuel (Uranium) and ENR (Enrichment and Reprocessing) technology to India without signing the NPT and CTBT. But in return, India needed to pay heavy prize. India came under U.S political pressure. India voted against Iran in IAEA. Iran was one of our oldest friend and we are making enemies is our neighborhood. Also India is slowly withdrawing from the much anticipated Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline which could long term solution for cheap and efficient fuel. Now Pakistan and Iran are going ahead with the pipeline. Also India is losing ground and significance on Non Alliance countries as India is slowly moving towards US alliance.
But in the recent G8 summit, under US pressure the G8 countries, including the 5 nuclear powers, decided not to give ENR technology to countries who haven't signed NPT. If this comes into effect, India will lose all the advantages, if any, it obtained from the Indo-US nuclear deal. India won't get the technologies to enrich Uranium from even France and Russia with whom India has already signed an agreement based on the nuclear deal. US, through many of deeds in the past, has proved to be a totally unworthy partner, which we will discuss later. Now UPA will have to answer why they believed US as a partner than the left which gave them support for 4 and a half years. Why did they sign the agreement even with strong opposition and warning from left parties? Now it's proved, without doubt, that left patry's warnings were true.
Some may ask why India shouldn't sign NPT & CTBT now and avoid these complications. First of all, as discussed earlier, it's a totally unfair treaty. Also India is still not recognized as a nuclear power and hence India will have to stop all its strategic researches. Also India will have to open all its nuclear reactors to IAEA which may prove disastrous. We have the example of Iran which is a signatory of NPT. Now US is accusing Iran for making nuclear bomb and asked them to stop all of their nuclear research. Iran replied that according to NPT, they have all rights to develop nuclear technology for peaceful purposes and they wouldn't stop it. Also they asked US to prove their accusation. Under US pressure, IAEA did a surprise check and they couldn't find any proof of bomb-making. A big irony is that India, not being an NPT signatory, voted against Iran, an NPT signatory, in IAEA for violating norms in NPT under US pressure. Similar thing can happen against India as well if they sign NPT or CTBT. Hence India shouldn't sign NPT or CTBT under any circumstances. And India should be very careful in dealing with US and if we are not getting ENR tech. from NSG, UPA government should think about considering to make changes in the Indo-US nuclear treaty.